“We have made coherent proposals that provide for open and fair competition on the basis of high standards in a way that is appropriate to a modern free trade agreement between sovereign and autonomous equals.” During the withdrawal negotiations, the Irish border issue was one of three areas that required a specific stream of negotiations to reach the necessary withdrawal agreement before future relations between the UK and the EU could be agreed.    The Irish and British governments as well as EU officials have stated that they do not want a hard border in Ireland, given the historical and social “sensitivities” that cross the island.  Johnson`s approach has sounded the alarm in the U.S. Congress and House of Representatives spokeswoman Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) has warned that the current open border between North and South must be preserved at all costs. Undermine the Good Friday Pact, Pelosi said, and “there will be absolutely no chance of getting a U.K.U. from one point to the other Trade agreements that pass through Congress.” The president-elect told reporters on Tuesday that a closed border between Ireland, an EU member state, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the UK, “is just not fair, we have to keep the border open.” The demarcation line was heavily militarized during the northern Ireland conflict and was opened after the signing of the historic Good Friday Peace Agreement in 1998. Now that Britain is leaving the EU, the prospect of border controls has become a reality again. “We want to make sure – we`ve worked too long to work on Ireland, and I`ve spoken to the British Prime Minister, I`ve spoken to the Prime Minister, I`ve spoken to others, I`ve spoken to the French,” Biden said. On 23 June 2016, the UK voted in a referendum to leave the EU. On 29 March 2017, Theresa May, then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, wrote to european Council President Donald Tusk triggering Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, triggering the process for a member state to leave the EU. The Article 50 procedure provides for a two-year period for the negotiation of a withdrawal agreement which should take into account future relations between the EU and the outgoing Member State.
At the request of the United Kingdom, the Article 50 deadline was finally extended until 31 January 2020. On 17 October 2019, the EU and the UK agreed on the text of a withdrawal agreement, which was unanimously approved by the European Council. Biden`s statements came after Irish Foreign Minister Simon Coveney told TIME that he believed the president-elect would not hesitate to use Britain and the United States. Trade agreements, a lever to keep the peace. If the UK`s exit from the EU undermines the Good Friday agreement, Coveney said, Britain`s coveted trade deal with the US “just won`t happen.” “From the beginning of this process, we have always been clear on the basis of which we can reach an agreement. These foundations are maintained,” he said. The EU and the UK have agreed on continued funding for the PEACE programme. The Irish backstop was a protocol in the (un ratified) Brexit withdrawal agreement that would have kept the UK (generally) in the customs union of the European Union and Northern Ireland (in particular) on certain aspects of the European internal market until a solution was found to avoid a hard border.